From Citizenship to Citizenship Education


Introduction of the book "From citizenship to citizenship education: process and challenges"

In her letter to the Lebanese State, through the ministry of culture, mediated by Lebanese ambassador to UNESCO, Mrs. Sylvie Fadlallah, the General Director of UNESCO, Mrs. Irina Bokova said:

“It’s the least to say that the International Center for Human Sciences has a key role to play, and I, in advance, applaud the efforts that seek to strengthen the bonds of cooperation between Lebanon and UNESCO, in order to make this institution a cornerstone for researches in the field of social and humanity sciences, and a top level interlocutor in relation to the culture of peace".

After discontinuity of scientific and cultural activities, which were the reason for establishing the International Center for Human Sciences -Byblos- (Lebanon), because of diverse and interrelated reasons related to the local and international conditions, the Center is  back again to engage in the assigned tasks, adopting the international project, that was put forward by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO ), through an international round table, held at its headquarters in Paris in 21- June-2011. Researchers and thinkers from around the world, have participated in the work of this international conference, they presented ideas and proposals, that can form a" road-map" for the optimum idea of democracy, considering an ambitious project and achievable aspirations according to spaciousness of types, and varied styles, not only as a single, imposed and rigid pattern.

Considering the optimum idea, democracy aims primarily to preserve and promote individual dignity and fundamental rights, to guarantee social justice, to foster the economic and social development of the community as a whole, to strengthen social cohesion and national order, and to engender a climate suitable to international peace. As a way of managing the state affairs, democracy also has the unique virtue of establishing a political system capable of self-correction. This is mentioned in the" road-map", drawn up by (UNESCO), which makes the International center for Human Sciences in Byblos, hold the responsibility to go into the midst of the details, by putting procedural and research programs, in multidisciplinary fields of human sciences.

No matter how different and varied the methods and ways are, that lead countries to change to democracy, " citizenship education" remains the pivotal procedural means, that should be strengthened, and put into practice by creative, capable ideas and by providing appropriate opportunities to achieve its goals. In this context, the International Center for Human Sciences,  in its first appearance, and in this new phase of joining other Centers that work under the auspices of UNESCO, has the pleasure to publish a book entitled "from citizenship to citizenship education: process and challenges" by Prof. Nemer Frayha.

Dr. Frayha is an international expert in educational affairs, have known him in Lebanon as a professor at the Faculty of Education, in the Lebanese University, then the head of the Educational Center for Research and Development, and then became a consultant for Curriculum Education in Oman between 2004 and 2009, and then dean of the College of Sciences and Arts at the University of Zofar (Sultanate of Oman) between 2009 and 2011, to return to the Lebanese University as an instructor at the Higher Institute for PhD.

Dr. Adonis Al Akra
The International Center for Human Sciences Director
Byblos - Lebanon

Table of contents


Part One:  Emerging and development of citizenship


          Citizenship in ancient time
          Athenian model
          Romanian citizenship
          Byzantine citizenship

Citizenship and religion

          Christian concept of citizenship
          The hundred year war and citizenship
          Church and citizenship after "Westphalia"
          Islam concept of citizenship
          The citizenship at present in the Islamic State
          Secularism and the identity in the modern state from an Islamic perspective

Contemporary citizenship

          Citizenship and Democracy
          Citizenship and dictatorship
          Citizenship and revolution: The Arab spring model
          Dimensions of contemporary citizenship
          Citizenship and Gender
          Citizenship and development
          Cosmic citizenship and globalization
          Electronic or digital citizenship

Challenges of citizenship

          The content of pluralistic society
          The erosion of national sovereignty
          Society with high illiteracy rate
          The driven society
          Weakness of faith in homeland
         The religious identity
          Marginalization of competencies

Part two: Citizenship education for a constructive citizenship


          Depending on education to achieve citizenship
          Educational philosophy and citizenship education
          The educational process
          Curriculum and citizenship education
          Academic materials and citizenship education
          Teaching methods
          The teacher
          The educational atmosphere

The fields of citizenship education and elements

          Cognitive domain
          Skill area
          Moral domain
          The national field
          The area of participation
          Citizenship education, technology and development
          Citizenship education and globalization
Citizenship education challenges

          Academic challenges
          The role of decision-makers
          Cloning future citizens 
          Political, social and economical practices
          Different affiliations and loyalties

Citizenship education and the future

          The flowering of educational philosophy
          Educational policy input
          Curriculum development
          Preventing citizenship education from being an academic material
          Teacher training
          Sophisticated school
          Effective school management
          Presenting the ideal manager

- Arabic references list
- Foreign references list